The In Vitro Cell Line Screening Project (IVCLSP) is a dedicated service providing direct support to the DTP anticancer drug discovery program. The in vitro cell line screen was implemented in fully operational form in April of 1990. It required approximately five years (1985 - 1990) to develop, and persistence in the effort reflected dissatisfaction with the performance of prior in vivo primary screens. This project is designed to screen up to 3,000 compounds per year for potential anticancer activity. The operation of this screen utilizes 60 different human tumor cell lines, representing leukemia, melanoma and cancers of the lung, colon, brain, ovary, breast, prostate, and kidney. The aim is to prioritize for further evaluation, synthetic compounds or natural product samples showing selective growth inhibition or cell killing of particular tumor cell lines. This screen is unique in that the complexity of a 60 cell line dose response produced by a given compound results in a biological response pattern which can be utilized in pattern recognition algorithms (COMPARE program. See: http://dtp.cancer.gov/docs/compare/compare.html). Using these algorithms, it is possible to assign a putative mechanism of action to a test compound, or to determine that the response pattern is unique and not similar to that of any of the standard prototype compounds included in the NCI database (see DTP Overview tab). In addition, following characterization of various cellular molecular targets in the 60 cell lines, it may be possible to select compounds most likely to interact with a specific molecular target.
The screening is a two-stage process, beginning with the evaluation
of all compounds against the 60 cell lines at a single dose of 10
output from the
single dose screen is reported as a mean graph and is available for
analysis by the COMPARE program. Compounds which exhibit significant
growth inhibition are evaluated against the 60 cell panel at five
Information on interpretation of the single-dose data is available at our website, http://dtp.cancer.gov/branches/btb/onedose_interp.html
The human tumor cell lines of the cancer screening panel are grown in RPMI 1640 medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum and 2 mM L-glutamine. For a typical screening experiment, cells are inoculated into 96 well microtiter plates in 100 µL at plating densities ranging from 5,000 to 40,000 cells/well depending on the doubling time of individual cell lines. After cell inoculation, the microtiter plates are incubated at 37° C, 5 % CO2, 95 % air and 100 % relative humidity for 24 h prior to addition of experimental drugs.
After 24 h, two plates of each cell line are fixed in situ with TCA, to represent a measurement of the cell population for each cell line at the time of drug addition (Tz). Experimental drugs are solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide at 400-fold the desired final maximum test concentration and stored frozen prior to use. At the time of drug addition, an aliquot of frozen concentrate is thawed and diluted to twice the desired final maximum test concentration with complete medium containing 50 µg/ml gentamicin. Additional four, 10-fold or ½ log serial dilutions are made to provide a total of five drug concentrations plus control. Aliquots of 100 µl of these different drug dilutions are added to the appropriate microtiter wells already containing 100 µl of medium, resulting in the required final drug concentrations.
Following drug addition, the plates are incubated for an additional 48 h at 37°C, 5 % CO2, 95 % air, and 100 % relative humidity. For adherent cells, the assay is terminated by the addition of cold TCA. Cells are fixed in situ by the gentle addition of 50 µl of cold 50 % (w/v) TCA (final concentration, 10 % TCA) and incubated for 60 minutes at 4°C. The supernatant is discarded, and the plates are washed five times with tap water and air dried. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) solution (100 µl) at 0.4 % (w/v) in 1 % acetic acid is added to each well, and plates are incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. After staining, unbound dye is removed by washing five times with 1 % acetic acid and the plates are air dried. Bound stain is subsequently solubilized with 10 mM trizma base, and the absorbance is read on an automated plate reader at a wavelength of 515 nm. For suspension cells, the methodology is the same except that the assay is terminated by fixing settled cells at the bottom of the wells by gently adding 50 µl of 80 % TCA (final concentration, 16 % TCA). Using the seven absorbance measurements [time zero, (Tz), control growth, (C), and test growth in the presence of drug at the five concentration levels (Ti)], the percentage growth is calculated at each of the drug concentrations levels. Percentage growth inhibition is calculated as:
[(Ti-Tz)/(C-Tz)] x 100 for concentrations for which Ti>/=Tz
[(Ti-Tz)/Tz] x 100 for concentrations for which Ti<Tz.
Three dose response parameters are calculated for each experimental agent. Growth inhibition of 50 % (GI50) is calculated from [(Ti-Tz)/(C-Tz)] x 100 = 50, which is the drug concentration resulting in a 50% reduction in the net protein increase (as measured by SRB staining) in control cells during the drug incubation. The drug concentration resulting in total growth inhibition (TGI) is calculated from Ti = Tz. The LC50 (concentration of drug resulting in a 50% reduction in the measured protein at the end of the drug treatment as compared to that at the beginning) indicating a net loss of cells following treatment is calculated from [(Ti-Tz)/Tz] x 100 = -50. Values are calculated for each of these three parameters if the level of activity is reached; however, if the effect is not reached or is exceeded, the value for that parameter is expressed as greater or less than the maximum or minimum concentration tested.
Alley, M.C., Scudiero, D.A., Monks, P.A., Hursey, M. L., Czerwinski, M.J., Fine, D.L., Abbott, B.J., Mayo, J.G., Shoemaker, R.H., and Boyd, M.R. Feasibility of Drug Screening with Panels of Human Tumor Cell Lines Using a Microculture Tetrazolium Assay. Cancer Research 48: 589-601, 1988.
Grever, M.R., Schepartz, S.A., and Chabner, B.A. The National Cancer Institute: Cancer Drug Discovery and Development Program. Seminars in Oncology, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp 622-638, 1992.
Boyd, M.R., and Paull, K.D. Some Practical Considerations and Applications of the National Cancer Institute In Vitro Anticancer Drug Discovery Screen. Drug Development Research 34: 91-109, 1995.
Please note the links for more information on the SNB-19, U251, NCI/ADR-RES, and MDA-MB-435 cell lines.